Sunday, April 18

Health

Study links structural brain changes to behavioral problems in children who snore
Health, Lifestyle

Study links structural brain changes to behavioral problems in children who snore

A large study of children has uncovered evidence that behavioural problems in children who snore may be associated with changes in the structure of their brain's frontal lobe. The findings support the early evaluation of children with habitual snoring. The research, published in Nature Communications, was supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and nine other Institutes, Centers, and Offices of the National Institutes of Health. Large, population-based studies have established a clear link between snoring and behavioural problems, such as inattention or hyperactivity, but the exact nature of this relationship is not fully understood. While a few small studies have reported a correlation between sleep apnea -- when pauses in breathing are prolonged -- and certain brai...
Study links early cannabis use to heart disease
Health, Lifestyle

Study links early cannabis use to heart disease

Smoking cannabis at a younger age may increase the risk of developing heart disease later in life, according to a recent University of Guelph study. In the first study to look at specific risk indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young, healthy cannabis users, researchers found subtle but potentially important changes in heart and artery function. Cigarette smoking is known to affect cardiovascular health, causing changes to blood vessels and the heart. Less is known about the impact of smoking cannabis on long-term CVD risk, even as the use of the substance grows in Canada and abroad. Cannabis is the most commonly used recreational substance worldwide after alcohol. "Cannabis is really widely used as a recreational substance all around the world and is becoming increasi...
Study discusses impact of chemotherapy on immune cells
Health, Lifestyle

Study discusses impact of chemotherapy on immune cells

The findings of recent research from Queen Mary University of London revealed novel insights into the effects of chemotherapy on the tumour microenvironment (TME). The study, published today in Cancer Immunology Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, found that chemotherapy enhances the anti-tumour actions of immune cells within the TME and their ability to support immune responses against cancer. Cancers are not just a mass of cancerous cells but are rogue organs made up of many different cell types, including cells that form connective tissue and blood vessels, and immune cells. These non-cancerous cells have been recruited and corrupted by cancer to help it grow and spread, and constitute what is known as the TME. When treating cancer cells with ch...
Study finds treatment for brain disease transmitted by tick bites
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Study finds treatment for brain disease transmitted by tick bites

The findings of a new study describe antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus transmitted by tick bites. These so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies have shown promise in preventing Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in mice and could inform the development of better vaccines for humans. Further, preliminary results suggest that the antibodies may not only prevent tick-borne encephalitis but even treat the condition, as well as the related Powassan virus emerging in the United States. Tick-borne encephalitis is a disease just as nasty as it sounds. Once bitten by an infected tick, some people develop flu-like symptoms that resolve quietly but leave behind rampant neurological disease--brain swelling, memory loss, and cognitive decline. Cases are on the rise in Central Europe and R...
Quantifying learning loss during Covid-19: Study
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Quantifying learning loss during Covid-19: Study

A recent study of national exam scores in the Netherlands, which underwent an eight-week school lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic, found that students' learning loss during the lockdown amounted to about one-fifth of a school year. This was equivalent to the duration of the lockdown, with up to 60 percent larger losses among students from disadvantaged homes, suggesting that students made little or no academic progress when learning from home. The authors of the study were Per Engzell, Arun Frey, and Mark D. Verhagen, among others. The findings of the research were published in the journal PNAS. The COVID-19 pandemic is transforming society in profound ways, often exacerbating social and economic inequalities in its wake. In an effort to curb its spread, governments around the w...
Cycling at moderate intensity transforms heart health of patients with kidney failure: Study
Health, Lifestyle

Cycling at moderate intensity transforms heart health of patients with kidney failure: Study

According to a new study, cycling at moderate intensity during dialysis could drastically improve the heart health of patients with kidney failure. The findings of the study were published in the journal titled 'Kidney International'. The study was led by the University of Leicester supported by the charity Kidney Research UK and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre. Patients in the study were offered 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on a specially adapted bicycle during their regular dialysis sessions. Dialysis can lead to long-term scarring of the heart, which can accumulate over time and lead to heart failure. The study set out to examine whether exercise could reduce these side effects. After six months, participants' hea...
Dementia risk doubles if people have both vision, hearing loss: Study
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Dementia risk doubles if people have both vision, hearing loss: Study

According to a new study, older adults who start losing both vision and hearing may be at an increased risk of developing dementia. The findings of the study were published in the online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. The study highlighted that losing some hearing or eyesight is often a part of getting older, but losing function in both senses may put you at greater risk of dementia and cognitive decline years later. However, the study did not find such a link between losing just one of those senses. "Depending on the degree of hearing or vision loss, losing function in your senses can be distressing and have an impact on your daily life," said study author JinHyeong Jhoo, M.D., Ph.D., of Kangwon National University School of Medic...
Study suggests risk of leukemia higher in children with Down syndrome
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Study suggests risk of leukemia higher in children with Down syndrome

A new study highlighted the risks of leukemia in children with Down syndrome. It pointed to stronger than expected associations between Down syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), one type of blood cancer. The study, published in The Journal of Pediatrics, was led by UC Davis Health and UC San Francisco researchers. Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic conditions in the US and Canada. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 6,000 babies with Down syndrome are born in the United States each year. That is approximately one in every 700 babies born in the US and one in 750 newborns in Canada. Children with Down syndrome have a substantially increased risk of multiple health conditions compared to the general population. They have a particula...
Certain high BP medications may alter heart risk in people with HIV
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Certain high BP medications may alter heart risk in people with HIV

New research has found that when people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) develop high blood pressure, the type of medication chosen for their initial treatment may influence their risk of heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. The findings of the study were published in Hypertension, an American Heart Association journal. With current anti-retroviral medications, people with HIV are able to live longer. However, people with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) are more likely to develop high blood pressure (hypertension) and hypertension-related heart problems than people who do not have the virus. The current study is the first to examine how the choice of blood pressure medications influences the long-term risk of heart disease, stroke, and heart failure in this po...
Infant antibiotic exposure may affect future immune responses toward allergies
Health, Lifestyle

Infant antibiotic exposure may affect future immune responses toward allergies

According to a new study, exposure to antibiotics in utero and infancy can lead to an irreversible loss of regulatory T-cells in the colon, a valuable component of the immune system's response toward allergens in later life, after only six months. The findings of the study were published in the journal mBio. It is already known that the use of antibiotics early in life disrupts the intestinal microbiota - the trillions of beneficial microorganisms that live in and on our bodies - that play a crucial role in the healthy maturation of the immune system and the prevention of diseases, such as obesity and inflammatory bowel disease. However, less is known about how disruption of the microbiota, which produces short-chain fatty acids that regulate T-cells, affects T-cells in the colon....
Exposure to harmful chemicals in plastic may increase risk of postpartum depression: Study
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Exposure to harmful chemicals in plastic may increase risk of postpartum depression: Study

Women exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals commonly found in plastics during pregnancy are at a higher risk of experiencing postpartum depression, suggested a new study. The findings of the study were published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. The study also found that these harmful chemicals may influence hormonal shifts during pregnancy. Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric disorder that affects up to 1 in 5 childbearing women. The cause of postpartum depression is not well understood, but hormonal changes during pregnancy have been found to be an important factor. Harmful chemicals such as bisphenols and phthalates that are found in plastics and personal care products are known to affect sex hormones. "We...
Dynamic strategy prioritising Covid-19 vaccines for seniors, essential workers
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Dynamic strategy prioritising Covid-19 vaccines for seniors, essential workers

Given the limited supply of vaccines amid a surge in coronavirus cases worldwide, a dynamic strategy that prioritises who gets vaccinated for Covid-19 can save lives and reduce the spread of infections and deaths, according to a new study. Debates rage on about prioritizing groups of people for vaccination even as there is a universal agreement that older people should get the vaccine first. A study published in the journal PNAS from the University of California, Davis illustrates how optimal prioritization is sensitive to several factors, most notably, vaccine effectiveness and supply, rate of transmission, and the magnitude of initial infections. A model incorporating epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 and vaccine distribution strategies that selectively prioritize mini...
New analysis claims deprivation ‘driving’ Covid-19 ethnic disparities
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New analysis claims deprivation ‘driving’ Covid-19 ethnic disparities

Deprivation among society at large is 'driving' COVID-19 disparities among minority ethnic groups - predominantly South Asian and Black African or Caribbean populations - and could be considered the main cause of disproportionate infection rates, hospitalisation, and deaths experienced by these populations, according to new analysis from the University of Leicester. The study, supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) comes a day after a government-commissioned review concluded race and racism have become less important factors in explaining social disparities in the UK. Researchers at the University of Leicester used UK Biobank data of 407,830 South Asian, Black and White individuals to model a hypothetical intervention...
Low-calorie diet, mild exercise may improve survival for leukemia adolescents
Health, Lifestyle

Low-calorie diet, mild exercise may improve survival for leukemia adolescents

According to a new study, overweight children and adolescents receiving chemotherapy for treatment of leukemia are less successful battling the disease compared to their lean peers. In some cancers, including leukemia in children and adolescents, obesity can negatively affect survival outcomes. Obese young people with leukemia are 50 percent more likely to relapse after treatment than their lean counterparts. Now, a study led by researchers at UCLA and Children's Hospital Los Angeles has shown that a combination of modest dietary changes and exercise can dramatically improve survival outcomes for those with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common childhood cancer. The findings of the study were published in the American Society of Hematology's journal Blood Advances. The r...
Mobile health technology can be beneficial for adults with heart disease
Health, Lifestyle

Mobile health technology can be beneficial for adults with heart disease

Mobile health technology including fitness apps have become a popular tool to track calories, weight loss, sleep, and even menstrual cycles, and now another benefit of using these applications has come to light. According to a new study, mobile health technology can be beneficial in encouraging lifestyle behaviour changes and medication adherence among adults aged 60 and older with existing heart disease. The findings of the study were published in the American Heart Association journal 'Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes'. Mobile health technology -- the use of mobile and wireless technologies to support the achievement of health objectives -- can include voice and short messaging services (text messaging), global positioning systems (GPS) and bluetooth technology, ...