For democracy, June 25 is a date that can never be forgotten. 47 years ago today, on the night of 25-26 June 1975, the Indira government imposed emergency in the country. With the declaration of Emergency by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, the fundamental rights of all citizens were abolished.
Not only the right to expression, people also did not have the right to life. Press censorship, sterilization, forced demolition of slums in the name of beautification of Delhi and many such decisions, due to which India’s emergency is called the darkest day of the country.
There was an atmosphere of panic in the whole country. During the Emergency of Indira Gandhi, from leaders to social workers who raised their voice against atrocities and excesses, were imprisoned. There was no space left in the jails, but those who raised their voices against the Emergency were saved and they have done this work well.
The result of this was that after 21 months, the emergency was lifted from the country on 21 March 1977. After a few months, the people of the country ousted Indira Gandhi from power with their power to vote. Jayaprakash Narayan had emerged as a prominent leader among those who raised their voice against the dictatorial attitude of Indira Gandhi.
Apart from this, Raj Narayan, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Lal Krishna Advani, George Fernandes, Chaudhary Charan Singh, Morarji Desai, Nanaji Deshmukh, VM Tarakunde, HD Deve Gowda, Arun Jaitley, Ram Vilas Paswan, Dr. Subramanian Swamy, Sharad Yadav, Lalu Prasad Leaders like Yadav and Nitish Kumar were thrown in jail by Indira Gandhi. However, later these same leaders overthrew the Congress from power. Let us know why the emergency was imposed by the Indira government.
On June 12, 1970, the countdown to impose emergency in the country had begun.
The decision of the Allahabad High Court is believed to be the main reason for the Indira government’s imposition of emergency in the country. The foundation of Emergency was laid on 12 June 1975 itself. On this day the ‘Allahabad High Court found Prime Minister Indira Gandhi guilty of misusing government machinery in the election campaign of Rae Bareli and set aside her election, not only that, Indira Gandhi was accused of contesting elections for six years and of any kind. There was also a ban on holding the post.
Let us inform that Raj Narayan got the matter filed in the Allahabad High Court in the year 1971 after losing the election to Indira Gandhi in Rae Bareli. Justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha gave this verdict. Although the Supreme Court upheld the order on 24 June 1975, but allowed Indira to continue in the prime minister’s chair.
A day later, Jayaprakash Narayan called for daily demonstrations across the country till Indira Gandhi resigned. After that, strikes, protests started across the country against Indira Gandhi. Under the leadership of some leaders including Jai Prakash Narayan, Morarji Desai started protesting against the Indira government by taking to the road.
Indira did not want to vacate the throne easily, despite the heavy pressure of these opposition leaders. On the other hand, Indira’s son Sanjay Gandhi did not want the power to go from his mother’s hands. On the other hand, the opposition was putting pressure on the government.
Eventually Indira Gandhi decided to impose emergency in the country on the night of 25 June. In the middle of the night, Indira got the then President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed to sign the emergency decision. After that emergency was declared in the country.
Opposition leaders incited anger across the country against Indira Gandhi during Emergency
Anger about the Emergency was at its peak among opposition leaders and the public across the country. The anger of the people against the Indira government was increasing. Indira Gandhi was also now beginning to understand that Emergency could not be imposed in the country for a long time, finally after 21 months on 21 March 1977, Emergency was abolished from the country. After that gradually the opposition leaders were also released from jail. In the year 1977, the country once again started preparing for the Lok Sabha elections.
Seeing the anger of the people of the country, Indira was also aware that this time it will not be easy to return to power. During the Emergency, Jayaprakash Narayan (JP) emerged as the ‘biggest leader’. Even today people have not forgotten the movement launched by JP against the Indira government during that time. The battle of JP reached a decisive point, Indira had to give up the throne.
Janata Party was formed under the leadership of Morarji Desai. General elections were held again in 1977, in which the Congress was badly defeated. Indira herself could not win from Rae Bareli. The Janata Party government was formed in the country and Morarji Desai became the Prime Minister at the age of 80, this was the first non-Congress government formed after thirty years of independence.
With the efforts of JP (Jaiprakash Narayan), the Janata Party formed the government at the center by uniting everyone. The purpose for which JP had formed the government was not fulfilled. Jayaprakash started a tussle among many big leaders among themselves. JP, who emerged as the biggest hero of the Emergency, was disappointed.
He was the main face of the entire movement against the Emergency, that is why he is also known as the father of JP movement. From 1974 to 25 June 1975, the farmers’ and students’ movement in the country got a new position. JP’s political skill was that he organized a movement against Indira Gandhi by uniting socialist and right-wing leaders.
Eventually Jayaprakash Narayan died on 8 October 1979. Today, 47 years have been completed since the Emergency in the country, but still the horrific memories of that dark chapter in democracy are fresh in the minds of the countrymen.